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Rumination: Failing "Move On" that can make depression

For some people, eliminating bitter memories is much more complicated. There are those who consciously remember sad memories to be stored again in memory and do nothing to change things. In psychological studies, this trend is called rumination.

There are several variants concerning the characteristics of rumination that are explained through various psychological theories. Susan Nolen-Hoeksema, for example, professor of psychology at Yale University in the United States, has a theory called Response Style Theory (RST) and is often considered the most empirical to explain the phenomenon of rumination.

Based on RST theory, as reported in one of Nolen-Hoeksema's 2008 research, Rethinking Rumination, rumination is explained as a form of maladaptive self-reflection because it produces new views that increase or extend the duration of the process. stress of depression.

The process will go through three stages. First, rumination will constantly remind one of a bitter past that triggers feelings of stress. Second, rumination prevents the person from effectively solving problems. Instead, they often think pessimistic and fatalistic. Third, rumination will disrupt a person's instrumental behavior to a depressive state.

Nolen-Hoeksema also claims that a chronically rumored person will eventually lose the support of social networks because it cancels out the results of related party consultations.

The consequence is that the symptoms of depression will evolve more severely and, as previously explained, of course to extend the duration.

"Rumination refers to the tendency to think repeatedly about the causes, situational factors and consequences of the negative (emotional) experience," he wrote in his study.

A little different from Nolen-Hoeksema's theory of RST, Edward Watkins, a professor of psychology at Dexter University, has his own understanding of rumination, which he summed up in the Goal Progress Theory (GPT).

Referring to the Zeigarnik effect (explaining why it is easier to remember something unfinished than vice versa), the specific formulation is conceptualized in the theory of the RST as a response related to the inability to 'to reach a goal. The mechanism is the same: think again and again about the different factors that cause failure.

Other rumination variants, as summarized in the National Biotechnology Information Center (NCBI) roadmap, include: Rumination on Sadness, Rumination Stress Reactive, Executive Self-Regulatory Function, Evaluative-Conceptual and Experiential , in rumination Regulation.

Despite its numerous variants and specific explanations, rumination remains one of the main causes of the symptoms of anxiety (anxiety), depression and acute stress. Research conducted by Nolen-Hoeksema at the American Psychological Association (APA) in 2000 showed that over the last 2.5 years, 137 people had suffered from ruminal depression.

They have general characteristics that often consume a lot of alcohol, want to commit suicide and have a lot of difficulty forgiving themselves.

Rumination between men and women

If you have had such bitter sorrow, often remember that instead of trying to turn it away, you could be a ruminator or have some ruminations.

Basically, rumination is a form of thinking about oneself so as not to return to the same bitterness. It's just that, a sharp rumination will make people obsessed to keep thinking about it, even if they no longer feel what happened before.